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 استهلاك الوقود في جمع النفايات

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مُساهمةموضوع: استهلاك الوقود في جمع النفايات   الخميس يناير 19, 2012 6:34 pm

[lAnna W. Larsen, Marko Vrgoc, Thomas H. Christensen and Poul Lieberknecht
Diesel consumption in waste collection and transport and its environmental significance
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Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
Poul Lieberknecht
Århus Miljøcenter, Århus Kommune, Denmark
Use of diesel in collection trucks is presumably the most important environmental burden from waste collection because of the
emission of exhaust gases from the combustion process. The environmental impact depends not only on the amount of diesel
used, but also the on the cleanness of the exhaust gas that is regulated by emission standards. We measured the diesel consumption
for 14 different collection schemes in two municipalities in Denmark, yielding a total of 254 measurements. Collection was
defined as driving and loading of waste from the first to the final stop on the collection route. All other distances covered were
defined as transport of waste, which was modelled in generic transport simulation models. The diesel consumption per tonne
of waste in the specified collection schemes turned out to be related to the type of housing and to the amount of waste collected
per stop. The observations showed a considerable variation between different collection schemes, ranging from 1.4–
10.1 L diesel tonne–1 of waste. Assessment of the potential environmental impact by a life-cycle-assessment method showed a
substantial decrease over the last decade because of implementation of European emissions standard for diesel trucks. The
paper also discusses the importance of energy used for collection and transport in relation to the potential energy savings from
waste treatment. In many cases, the net savings exceed significantly the use of diesel.
Keywords: Collection, trucks, diesel consumption, emission standards
Introduction
Collection of solid waste is in most cities done by truck; ranging
from old and badly maintained open trucks to highly specialized
collection vehicles with compaction of the waste and
compartments for more than one waste type. The environmental
issues related to waste collection are believed to be
related primarily to the use and combustion of diesel in vehicles.
In a broader context environmental issues are also related
to wear of brakes and tyres, spills of oil, noise and odour as
well as to the construction and maintenance of trucks and
collection bins. In this paper, we provide data on the consumption
of diesel per tonne of waste collected for a range of
waste fractions and collection schemes, and we assess the
emissions from the diesel combustion by means of a lifecycle-
assessment approach.
The diesel consumption per tonne of waste collected will
depend on a range of factors related to the waste, the collection
area, the truck, the distance to the unloading point, and
the driver. The diesel consumption takes place during acceleration,
driving and compaction of the waste. Several models
predict diesel consumption during waste collection based on
detailed information on number of stops, number of bins per
stop, distance between stops, etc. (Sonesson 2000, den Boer
et al. 2005); but often the input parameters themselves are
highly variable and hard to determine for larger collection
areas. One reason for the high degree of parameterization is
that the models also calculate the operation time, which is
used in economic optimization and assessment. The time
aspect is not relevant for assessing the environmental burden
of waste collection.
We have chosen to measure the actual diesel consumption
on collection trucks servicing different types of residential
areas as a basis for assessing the environmental impact from
Corresponding author: Thomas H. Christensen, Building 115, DTU, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
E-mail: thc@env.dtu.dk
Received 13 March 2008; accepted in revised form 30 July 2008
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Diesel consumption in waste collection and transport and its environmental significance
653
the waste collection. Variable factors such as distance, speed
and number of stops during collection lie implicit in the definition
of the collection scheme, that is, the waste type and
residential area serviced.
Approach and methods
Definitions
As the distance from the collection area to the point of
unloading, for example, the transfer station, landfill, incinerator
or recycling plant, may vary significantly from city to city
and for different separately collected waste fractions, we
have to distinguish between the actual collection and the
transport of waste.
Collection is defined here as the driving from the first stop
to the last stop on the collection route. When no more waste
is loaded onto the truck, the truck leaves the collection area
and drives to the unloading point. The collection is described
by litres of diesel used per tonne of waste collected.
Transport is defined as the driving of the empty truck from
the garage to the start of the collection route, driving of the full
truck from the final stop on the collection route to the unloading
point, and driving of the empty truck from that point either
back to the garage or to a new collection area if more than
one area is serviced on the same day. Transport comprises
distances driven by empty or full truck and can be described
in litres of diesel per tonne per kilometre. The fuel consumption
for transport can be estimated from real-case
measurements, obtained from life-cycle assessment databases,
or calculated in transport simulation software, for
example.
The conceptual model for defining collection and transport
is shown in Figure 1. Arrows A, B and C illustrate the
routes considered as transport, while driving in the collection
area is defined as collection. The figure shows an example in
which the collection area is serviced twice before the collection
truck returns to the garage.
Waste types and collection methods
Four waste types have been included in the study.
• Source-separated glass packaging (bottles, jars) collected
in drop-off containers placed at central traffic points and
shopping areas, each typically serving 200–300 families.
The drop-off containers usually have a volume of 0.7–
2.5 m3 and are emptied as needed. The content of the dropoff
containers are emptied into open bed trucks by a hydraulic
hoist.
• Source-separated paper (newspapers, advertisement, etc.)
collected either in drop-off containers similar to the ones
used for glass packaging or in a kerbside collection scheme
using a compacting truck. Bins typically used in kerbside
collection scheme are 0.400–0.660 m3 bins for apartment
buildings and 0.190–0.240 m3 bins for single-family houses.
The collection frequency is typically set to every second
and fourth week, respectively.
• Residual household waste collected in full service system.
Single-family houses have 0.190–0.240 m3 bins that
are emptied fortnightly, whereas apartment buildings
are equipped with 0.400–0.660 m3 bins emptied at least
once per week.
• Bulky waste, which is large items such as refrigerators and
furniture, is collected in a municipal kerbside collection
scheme. There are two main types: collection by regular
service (monthly) or collection on request by the customer
(within a week). The waste is loaded on the truck either
manually or by a hoist.
Study area
We have in the period 2002 to 2007 measured the diesel consumption
in waste collection vehicles three times. The measurements
were conducted twice in the municipality of Aarhus,
Denmark, and once in the municipality of Herning, Denmark.
The municipalities have 300 000 and 60 000 inhabitants,
respectively, and both have various types of residential areas
with different collection schemes.
The collection routes studied were grouped according to
the type of residential area primarily reflecting the housing
type, the bin type and the waste density in the area. Two
types of residential areas with predominantly apartment
houses and three types of residential areas with predominantly
single-family houses were identified and selected for
the study.
• City: old dense part of town dominated by attached apartment
buildings. The residual household waste is typically
collected in shared 0.600 m3 bins placed in dedicated areas
in the backyards of the apartment buildings without direct
access for the collection vehicles.
• Apartment buildings outside the city center: typically relatively
modern and large apartment buildings with a rational
waste collection system involving mainly shared 0.600 m3
bins or large containers with easy access for the collection
vehicle on the location.
• Single-family houses in urban areas: dense single-family
housing district outside the city centre. Residual household
waste and paper waste is collected in individual 0.190–
Fig. 1: Conceptual model for collection and transport of waste.
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A.W. Larsen, M. Vrgoc, P. Lieberknecht, T.H. Christensen
654
0.240 m3 wheelie-bins placed at the kerbside or on the
lot with easy access to the bin. There is less than 50 m
between stops.
• Small towns: Single-family houses in villages and small
towns (up to 500 houses) with an average distance of
approximately 3 km to the nearest village or town. The collection
schemes are the same as for single-family houses in
urban areas, but the collection pattern differs from the
aforementioned type because the truck drives long distances
without picking up waste while driving from town
to town.
• Rural area: single-family houses, farm houses and a few
small villages located in the open land. The collection
schemes are the same as for single-family houses in
urban areas. Each collection point provides little waste
and driving is significant between collection points (50–
1000 m).
Measurements
The drivers of the collection vehicles were doing the primary
observations. Only collection routes that comply with just
one of the defined types of residential areas have been measured.
On the collection day, the driver registered the type of
residential area serviced that day, number of collection trips
of the day, first and last addresses visited on each collection
trip, total diesel consumption of the day, total distance travelled
that day, weight of each load of waste, and net weight
of the truck used. Furthermore, the driver had to follow a
defined collection pattern similar to the conceptual model in
Figure 1.
1. The empty truck drives from the garage to the start of the
collection area
2. The truck collects waste.
3. The loaded truck drives from the collection area to the
facility that receives the waste.
4. The waste is unloaded.
5. The empty truck drives either to a new collection area
(step 2–4 is repeated) or drives back to the garage.
Any deviation from the outlined collection pattern or missing
registration caused the measurement to be rejected. In
total 254 observations were made on 14 different collection
schemes.
Calculations
The route of the day according to the outlined collection pattern
was entered in a GIS-based mapping system (Krak
2007) and the total distance travelled, except while collecting,
was calculated. If the distance was slightly less than the
odometer reading of the day, it was assumed that the driving
of the vehicle reflected the route of interest.
The amount of diesel used for transport was estimated
by a transport simulation software (Teknologisk Institut 2001)
based on assumption of linear correlation between the gross
vehicle weight (tonne) and diesel consumption (L km–1). We
chose to estimate the diesel consumption for transport this way
instead of performing extensive measurements; however, it was
not possible to assess the uncertainty of these calculations.
The fuel consumption for the collection as defined above
was calculated as the total use of diesel of the day (registered
by the driver) minus the diesel consumption for transport
(estimated) and divided by the total amount of waste collected
that day as expressed in the equation:
where Dcollection is the diesel consumption for collection
(L tonne–1); Dtotal is the total diesel consumption (L day–1);
Dt, empty is the diesel consumption for driving empty truck
from garage to collection area and from point of unloading
to collection area or garage (L day–1); Dt, full is the diesel consumption
for driving the full truck from collection area to
point of unloading (L day–1); and M is the amount of waste
collected (tonne day–1).
Emissions from diesel combustion
The diesel combusted in the collection vehicles yields emissions
to air depending on the type of engine and maintenance
of the vehicle and its exhaust system. In addition, the
aggressiveness of the driving may affect the emissions.
As the limits for emissions from diesel trucks are regulated
in Europe in terms of the European emission standards,
we related the potential environmental impact from the
diesel combustion to the standards Euro II, Euro III, Euro IV
and Euro V. The European emission standards for high-duty
diesel engines and their implementation dates are shown in
Table 1 (DieselNet 2007a). New trucks must in Europe meet
the Euro V standard by October 2008. The emission stand-
Dcollection
Dtotal – (Dt, empty + Dt, full)
M
= -------------------------------------------------------------
Table 1: European emission standards and their implementation dates. Reproduced from DieselNet (2007a) Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck and Bus
Engines.: www.dieselnet.com/standards/eu/hd.php with permission from DieselNet.com.
Tier Date CO (g kWh–1) HC (g kWh–1) NOX (g kWh–1) PM (g kWh–1)
Euro I 1992, > 85 kW 4.5 1.1 8.0 0.36
Euro II 1996 (Oct.) 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.25
1998 (Oct.) 4.0 1.1 7.0 0.15
Euro III 2000 (Oct.) 2.1 0.66 5.0 0.10
Euro IV 2005 (Oct.) 1.5 0.46 3.5 0.02
Euro V 2008 (Oct.) 1.5 0.46 2.0 0.02
ards are based on standardized test cycles that simulate various
driving conditions, such as engine speed, load and engine
temperature (DieselNet 2007b).
Since the emission standards represent standardized, average
driving conditions, actual emissions may vary considerably
depending on the use of the truck. We have used the transport
simulation software TEMA2000 (Ministry of Transport 2000)
to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide,
carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and particulate
matter from a collection truck (gross vehicle weight:
10 tonnes) driving in urban areas. The estimations are given
in g L–1 diesel are summarized in Table 2.
Assessing environmental impacts
The potential environmental impact of collection and transport
of waste in diesel trucks was assessed by modelling in
EASEWASTE, which is a life-cycle-assessment model developed
for waste management systems (Kirkeby et al. 2006).
Different types of collection trucks were compared in the
assessment which encompassed production (pre-combustion)
and combustion of diesel. In a life-cycle perspective, production
and maintenance of trucks, wear on trucks and production
of bins could also have been included, but they were left
out since the potential environmental impact from these
would have been the same or very close for the compared
collection trucks.
All emissions from production and combustion of diesel
were converted into impact potentials and normalized by the
average contribution by one person in one year. In this study,
the life-cycle-assessment method EDIP97 (Wenzel et al.
1997) with updated normalization references (Stranddorf et
al. 2005) was used. The potential environmental impact was
calculated for four impact categories: global warming, acidification,
nutrient enrichment and photochemical ozone formation,
because they have proved to be the most important
categories in relation to combustion emissions. Normalization
references for the impact categories are shown in Table 3
(Stranddorf et al. 2005).
Results and discussion
The results are presented and discussed in terms of diesel
consumption for collection and transport and in terms of the
potential environmental impact for various types of engines.
In addition, energy issues related to collection, transport and
treatment of waste are discussed.
Diesel consumption for collection
The diesel consumptions expressed in L tonne–1 waste collected
are presented in Table 4. The standard deviation for
each estimation is also shown. The diesel consumption
ranged from 1.4 to 10.1 L tonne–1 waste collected. The measurements
were performed in two municipalities at different
times, but they showed the same level of diesel consumption
in the specified residential areas. The most rational collection
scheme was kerbside collection at apartment buildings
outside the city with easy access for the vehicles, closely followed
by collection in city centre and at single-family houses
in urban areas. Collection in small towns and rural areas
where distance between collection points is longer was less
fuel efficient. The trend was observed for kerbside collection
of both residual household waste and paper waste. This
means that the diesel consumption for collection was proportional
to the waste or population density. The standard deviations,
however, were about 30% suggesting that even within
the same type of area, the diesel consumption per tonne of
waste collected varied substantially. The study did not reveal
any causes for this variation. Possible causes could be variation
in waste or population density within the area; differences
in drivers’ behaviour; or variation caused by using
trucks of different sizes within the area.
Most measurements were done for residual household
waste. There was good agreement between the measurements
Table 2: Emissions from a collection truck driving in urban areas, calculated by TEMA2000 (Ministry of Transport 2000).
Tier CO2 (g L–1) SO2 (g L–1) CO (g L–1) HC (g L–1) NOX (g L–1) PM (g L–1)
Euro II 2629 0.08 4.0 1.9 30.4 0.9
Euro III 2629 0.08 3.4 1.7 24.3 0.6
Euro IV 2629 0.08 2.2 1.2 17.0 0.1
Euro V 2629* 0.08* 2.2* 1.2* 11.9** 0.1*
* Assumed to be the same as for Euro IV
** Extrapolated from the values for Euro II–IV
Table 3: Normalization references in the life-cycle-assessment method EDIP97 (Stranddorf et al. 2005).
Impact category Characterization unit
Normalization reference
(Characterization unit person–1 year–1)
Global warming kg CO2-equivalents 8700
Acidification kg SO2-equivalents 74
Nutrient enrichment kg NO3-equivalents 119
Photochemical ozone formation kg C2H4-equivalents 25
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A.W. Larsen, M. Vrgoc, P. Lieberknecht, T.H. Christensen
656
in 2002–2003 and 2006–2007 in the municipality of Aarhus.
The values obtained for the different residential areas were
almost identical. The values for similar areas in the municipality
of Herning deviated from the measurements in Aarhus. The
fuel consumption was considerably lower in urban areas, but
higher in rural areas. However, it is not known for certain what
caused this difference.
The fuel consumption was slightly higher for kerbside collection
of paper waste than for residual household waste.
This seems reasonably since the amount of waste collected
per stop was smaller for paper waste. If the collection of
recyclables caused higher diesel consumption, the significance
of the collection method would be a relevant object for
further studies. One study by Tanskanen & Kaila (2001) has
shown that introduction of more fractions for source separation
increased the activity of waste collection in terms of cost,
fuel and working hours. This tendency was mitigated if the
waste fractions were collected as commingled or in multi-compartment
vehicles rather than single-compartment vehicles.
Diesel consumption for emptying of drop-off containers
for glass and paper fell in the middle of the range, proving
that bring schemes are fuel efficient, if the fuel spent by the
citizens in bringing the waste to the drop-off container is not
accounted. In a study of glass recycling schemes, Edwards &
Schelling (1999) found that, in some cases, waste transport in
passenger cars can be at least as important as the local transport,
namely collection and transport, in terms of fuel consumption
per kg waste.
Collection of bulky waste is a special case that was not
comparable to collection of household waste. However, the
tendency to lower fuel consumption in the city centre in comparison
with less dense areas was also clear here.
Diesel consumption for collection compared to transport
In our definition of waste collection and transport, the diesel
consumption for transportation of the collected waste was
linear with the distance travelled. The graphs in Figure 2
show the diesel consumption per tonne of waste for collection
and transport as a function of the distance between collection
area and point of unloading for nine different collection
schemes. Distance ranged from 0 to 100 km; the latter
was considered to be a maximum travel distance without
Table 4: Diesel consumption observed for collection of waste.
Diesel
consumption
(L tonne–1)
Standard
deviation
Number of
measurements
Collection
frequency
(times month–1)
Municipality
Year
Residual household waste
City centre 3.1 1.1 9 > 4 Aarhus 2006–2007
City centre 3.0 1.6 38 > 4 Aarhus 2002–2003
Apartment buildings outside city centre 1.6 0.5 6 > 4 Aarhus 2006–2007
Apartment buildings outside city centre 1.7 0.5 15 > 4 Aarhus 2002–2003
Single-family houses in urban areas 3.3 1.5 21 2 Aarhus 2006–2007
Single-family houses in urban areas 3.6 1.3 28 2 Aarhus 2002–2003
Single-family houses and apartment
buildings in urban areas 1.4 0.4 4 2 Herning 2006
Small towns 2.4 0.3 4 2 Herning 2006
Small towns 5.7 0.8 6 2 Aarhus 2002–2003
Rural areas 10.1 2.6 4 2 Herning 2006
Rural areas 6.3 1.3 11 2 Aarhus 2006–2007
Rural areas 6.3 1.2 19 2 Aarhus 2002–2003
Paper
Apartment buildings outside city centre 3.5 1.7 8 2 Aarhus 2006–2007
Apartment buildings outside city centre 2.2 1.00 17 2 Aarhus 2002–2003
Single-family houses in urban areas 6.6 2.5 8 1 Aarhus 2006–2007
Single-family houses in urban areas 4.1 0.8 4 1 Aarhus 2002–2003
Single-family houses and apartment
buildings in urban areas 3.4 0.3 4 1 Herning 2006
Drop-off containers
All areas 3.7 0.8 12 – Aarhus 2007
Drop-off containers
All areas 4.9 1.9 15 – Aarhus 2002–2003
Glass
Drop-off containers
All areas 4.9 1.4 6 – Aarhus 2002–2003
Bulky
waste
City centre, regular service 2.6 0.7 6 1 Aarhus 2006–2007
Outside city centre, collection by
request 9.1 3.3 9 – Aarhus 2006–2007
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Diesel consumption in waste collection and transport and its environmental significance
657
using a transfer station. The diesel consumption was calculated
for driving the fully loaded truck to the point of unloading
and driving the emptied truck back the same distance.
The distance in kilometres in Figure 2 is the one-way distance.
For simplicity, any diesel spent on driving from and to
the garage was not included. The graphs are based on the
survey in Aarhus 2003 where data on average weight of payloads
and trucks were obtained for all collection schemes.
The intersection on the vertical axis is the diesel consumption
for collection.
The observations for collection were in the range of 2–
6 L diesel tonne–1 waste, whereas inclusion of subsequent
transport may increase the total diesel consumption to up to
20 L tonne–1 waste. The distances where diesel spent on collection
and transport became equally important for the total
consumption were found to be between 20 and 50 km for the
collection schemes shown in Figure 2. This indicates that initiatives
to reduce the diesel consumption could be sought in
optimization of collection routes as well as in reducing the
transport of waste in collection trucks. Reloading of waste to
more efficient carriers at a transfer station will make the
transport more fuel efficient. Table 5 shows typical fuel consumptions
for long-haul trucks, bulk carriers, container ships
and trains. For comparison, the energy content in diesel is
36 MJ L–1.
Environmental impacts from combustion of diesel
The impact on the environment from collection and transportation
depends not only on the amount of diesel used, but
also on the combustion process. Regulation in the form of
emission standards for new truck engines has led to a reduction
of harmful emissions caused by combustion of diesel.
Figure 3 shows the potential environmental impact from
combustion of 1 L diesel in a collection truck aggregated into
four impact categories.
The graphs for acidification and nutrient enrichment show
that going from the Euro II standard to the Euro V standard
reduced the potential environmental impact by 60% because of
stricter limit values for emission of nitrogen oxides. The sulfur
content in diesel was assumed to be the same in the four cases
and did not influence the observed reduction.
Potential photochemical ozone formation was reduced by
40% when going from the Euro II standard to the Euro V
standard because of reduced emissions of hydrocarbons and
carbon monoxide.
The global warming potential is constant because it is
mainly caused by emission of carbon dioxide from the carbon
content in the fuel. Higher fuel efficiency of the trucks is
required if global warming potential must decline. Potentials
for global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment
are about the same level for a collection truck complying
Table 5: Energy use for means of transportation, calculated in
TEMA2000 (Ministry of Transport, 2000).
Means of transportation Energy use (MJ tonne–1 km–1)
Long-haul truck 0.8
Bulk carrier 0.2
Containership 0.3
Train 0.4
Fig. 2: Diesel consumption as a function of distance to treatment plant: (a) collection of residual household waste; (b) recyclables.
Fig. 3: Potential environmental impact from production and combustion
of 1 L diesel. The share below the line illustrates the impact
related to production only.
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A.W. Larsen, M. Vrgoc, P. Lieberknecht, T.H. Christensen
658
with the Euro II standard. As the newer emission standards
tend to reduce the potential impact of acidification and
nutrient enrichment, global warming becomes the most
important environmental impact from combustion of diesel.
The largest emission reduction from the Euro I standard
in 1992 to the Euro V standard which is mandatory for new
trucks in Europe from 2008 is observed for particulate matter
(PM) (Table 1). The emission of fine particles is considered
to be harmful to health and can cause heart diseases,
altered lung function and lung cancer. Hazards to human
health and ecosystems are assessed with a group of impact
categories for toxic damage that has been excluded from the
study because of uncertain characterization of the substances.
Unfortunately, it was not possible to assess the
highly debated impact from emitted particulate matter.
Energy issues
Waste collection and transport unavoidably demand use of
energy. The total energy consumption for collection and transport
rarely exceeded 1 GJ tonne–1 waste based on the examples
of diesel consumption provided in Tables 4 and 5. However,
the energy spending should be compared with the potential
energy recovery from the waste or energy-saving by material
recovery. The energy can be utilized directly, for example,
through incineration or anaerobic gasification, or it can be
saved by material recovery where extraction and processing
of virgin materials is avoided. These savings may, depending
on technology and conditions, reach 10 GJ tonne–1 waste.
Energy recovery from waste incineration in terms of electricity
production and heat production for district heating
may vary significantly among plants. In Europe, the energy
recovery ranges from 2–9 GJ tonne–1 waste (ISWA 2006).
Energy savings by producing paper from recycled pulp
compared to production from virgin pulp may also be as high
as 10 GJ tonne–1, although actual conditions may influence the
net saving significantly. Schmidt et al. (2007) found that production
of virgin paper in Denmark on average required 21.8 GJ
tonne–1 paper whereas the energy used for paper produced
from recycled paper was 9.6 GJ tonne–1 paper. Another survey
found that the energy use for virgin paper production at
single paper mills was between 13.0 and 23.4 GJ tonne–1
paper (Frees et al. 2005). Similarly, the energy use for recycling
of paper and cardboard was in the range of 5.8–19.4 GJ
tonne–1 paper.
The importance of energy use for collection and transport
should be seen in relation to the potential energy savings
attained by treatment of the waste.
Conclusion
In this study, the diesel consumption of 14 different collection
schemes (four waste fractions, five types of residential
areas) was measured. The applied method was useful to estimate
the average diesel consumption of collection trucks in
the specified collection schemes, but it was necessary to perform
a relatively large number of measurements because of
high standard deviation.
The study showed that the diesel consumption ranged
from 1.4 to 10.1 L tonne–1 waste collected. The lowest diesel
consumption was observed for collection of residual household
waste from apartment buildings because of the short
distance between the stops and relatively large amount
picked up per stop, which gave the most rational form of collection.
Conversely, collection of residual household waste in
rural areas with long distances and little waste per stop had
the highest diesel consumption. The correlation between
diesel consumption and waste or population density was evident
from the observations.
The total amount of diesel used for collection and transport
of waste can be estimated from the obtained results in
combination with generic data on diesel consumption in
transportation methods. The environmental impact from use
of diesel depends greatly on the emission standard that the
vehicles meet. The potential impact calculated by a lifecycle-
assessment method decreased substantially when going
from the Euro II standard (1998) to the Euro V standard
(2008). In conclusion, both fuel minimization and regulation
of exhaust gases are significant aspects for reducing the
potential environmental impact from diesel-powered waste
collection trucks.
Acknowledgement
We appreciate very much the engagement and efforts made by
the collection crews in providing the data used in this study.
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